Una delle difficoltà più comuni in inglese è sapere quando usare la forma in ing/gerundio (doing) e quando usare l’infinitivo (to do), dopo un verbo o una preposizione.
Ci sono sono delle regole generali che possono aiutare, e che illustreremo di seguito in questa tabella.
La forma ing/gerundio puo’ comparire all’inizio di una frase quando è usato come soggetto:
Runnig is good for the soul.
La forma ing/gerundio puo’ fungere da oggetto dopo alcuni verbi (vedi la lista i verbi qui sotto).
He loves going to the cinema.
La forma ing/gerundio segue le preposizioni (vedi la lista preposizioni)
I’m looking forward to hearing from you
La forma ing/gerundio segue i phrasal verbs
Mary gave up smoking
Anche l‘infinitivo puo’ essere usato all’inizio della frase, come soggetto.
To learn a new language requires a big effort
Anche l‘infinitivo puo’ fare da oggetto e seguire alcuni verbi (vedi la lista i verbi).
Albert always forgets to study.
Alcuni verbi vogliono l’infinitivo.(vedi la lista i verbi).
I want to buy a new car.
L’infinitivo puo essere usato come aggettivo per modificare i sostantivi.
Jim has the abity to sell.
Con alcuni verbi si puo usare sia la forma ing/gerundio che l’infinitivo e il significato non cambia.
Kim prefer getting up late in the morning
Kim prefer to get up late in the morning
Con alcuni verbi si puo’ usare sia la forma ing/gerundio che l’infinitivo pero il significato cambia
He stopped eating choccolate (significa che ha smesso di mangiare cioccolato, definitivamnete)
He stopped to eat chccolate. (significa che ha smesso l’attività precendente per per mangiare cioccolato)
Qui sotto la lista di verbi e frasi più comuni usati con la forma ing/gereundio:
- admit: ammetere, confessare – She admitted cheating her friend on the test
- advise: consigliare – I advise doing it before he comes back.
- avoid: evitare – He wants to avoid buying a new computer.
- be used to: essere abituato a qualcosa – I’m used to eating at one o’clock.
- can’t help: non poter fare a meno di qualcosa – I can’t help thinking about the exam.
- can’t stand: non sopportare: He can’t stand people smoking.
- consider: considerare – I will consider eating with you.
- deny: negare – John denys committing the crime.
- discuss: discutere – We discuss buying a house.
- dislike: non piacere, detestare – He dislikes cooking.
- end up: finire per fare qualcosa – I end up working at Google.
- enjoy: piacere – Kim enjoys playing piano.
- feel like: aver voglia di – He feels like running.
- finish: finire – I finished working about nine.
- forget: dimenticare – I forgot calling him.
- get used to: abituarsi a – I get used to speaking French.
- give up: smettere – He gave up smoking.
- go on: continuare – You should go on studying music.
- have difficulty: fare fatica a – I have difficulty learning english.
- have trouble: ho difficoltà a – He has trouble walking.
- it’s no use: è inutile – It’s no use talking to her.
- it’s worthwhile: vale la pena – It’s worthwhile spending money for a new car.
- keep: continuare a – I keep working on the project.
- look forward to: in attesa di – We are looking forward to hearing from you soon.
- mention: menzionare/accenare – Jim mentionened going to London.
- mind: importare di fare – Do you mind doing it?
- recommend: consigliare, raccomandare – I recommend reading this document.
- remember: ricordare di – I remember helping him last year.
- quit: smettere di – She quits playing tennis.
- spend time: passare il tempo – He spends time watching TV.
- stop: fermare – Jack stopping running when he got tired.
- suggest: suggerire/consigliare – He suggested buying this car.
- understand: capire – I can’t understand programming even after trying.
Qui sotto la lista di verbi e frasi più comuni usati con la forma infinitiva:
- afford: permettersi o essere in grado – I lost my job and I can’t afford to buy a new car.
- agree: aconsentire, accettare qualcosa – He agrees to let me use his computer.
- appear: sembrare che – He appears to drink my tea.
- arrange: organizzare – He arranged to go on holiday next week.
- ask: chiedere – I ask him to buy a CD.
- care: aver voglia di, importare – I don’t really care to go out this night.
- decide: decidere – I decided to learn French.
- demand: pretendere di, esigere di – He demanded to see the director.
- expect: aspettarsi di, credere che – I expect to meet him next week.
- fail: non riuscire a fare – He faliled to delivery the pakage in time.
- forget: dimenticare di – I forget to call my brother.
- hope: sperare – I hope to come with you tomorrow.
- learn: imparare – They learned to swim.
- manage: riuscire a fare – Jim has managed to get a good feedback from clients.
- mean: volere, avere intenzione di: He doesn’t mean to disturb Kim.
- offer: offrirsi di fare – She offered to clean her mother’s house.
- plan: pensare di, progettare di – I plan to go on holiday next month.
- prepare: prepararsi a fare – Jack is preparing to run a new challenge.
- pretend: fingere, far finta – The kids pretend to be pirate.
- promise: promettere – He promise to help me with the test.
- refuse: rifiutare di – Kim has refused to pick up his best friend.
- remember: ricordare di – Finally I remembered to call him for birthday.
- seem: sembrare: He seem to be very happy.
- volunteer: offrirsi volontario per – He voluntereered to take Jim to the airport.
- wait: aspettare – They is waiting to know the final decision.
- want: volere – I want to buy a new bike.
- wish: desidereare di – He always wish to go away.
Alcune preposizioni sono seguite dal gerundio:
- at: a – I’m not good at playing tennis.
- after: dopo – After watching the movie, we wanted to eat pizza.
- against: contro – He’s against going to London on vacation.
- about: a proposito, circa – What about drinking a cup of tea?
- by: per mezzo, con – You can fix this problem by using internet.
- before: prima – Before doing somenthing like this, let me give you some advise.
- instead of: invece di – Jim went to the cinema instead of going to work.
- on: su, sopra, secondo – To get a good outcome, you need to keep on going.
- without: senza – I cannot sleep without watching TV.
- in spite of: nonostante – In spite of working a lot he didn’t get a good salary.
In questo contesto esiste la struttura
Aggettivo + Preposizione + ing oppure Sostantivo + Preposizione + ing, qui sotto aluni esempi:
- afraid of – dispiaciuto per – They are afraid of losing the match.
- angry about: arrabbiato per – Gary is angry about working until 8pm.
- bad at/good at: buono a/scarso a – Jim is bad at playing tennis.
- clever at: bravo a, sveglio a – Kim is clever at playing piano.
- crazy about: pazzo per qualcosa – My sister is crazy about swimming.
- disappointed about/at: deluso da – Mary is disappointed about watching such a bad movie.
- excited about: impaziente di, eccitato per – She is excited about buying a car.
- famous for: famoso per – He is famous for cooking a god italian pasta.
- fed up with: stufo di – I’m fed up with being sent from one department to another.
- fond of: affezionarsi a, appasionato di – I’m fond of playing guitar.
- glad about: contento di – He is glad about going to Mary’s party.
- happy about/at: felice di – She isn’t happy about seeing her ex-husband.
- interested in: interessato a – He is interested in starting a new business.
- keen on: appassionato di – My brother is keen on cooking.
- proud of: fiero di – He is proud of working for this company.
- sick of: essere stufo di – He is sick of going out every night.
- sorry about/for: dispiacere, rimanere male – I’m so sorry for arriving later.
- tired of: essere stanco – He is tired of watching the same movie.
- used to: essere abituato – Jim is used to listening music.
- worried about: preoccupato per – I’m worried about driving at night.
Alcuni verbi/phrasal verbs che sono seguiti da la forma ing:
- agree with: essere d’accordo con – He agrees with buying a new car.
- approve of: accettare, acconsentire – He approved of signing the contract.
- admit to: ammetere, confessare – She admited to eating the whole cake.
- aim at: mirare , puntare a – They aim to selling the house by end of this year.
- apologise for: scusarsi – Jack apologized for missing the morning meeting.
- believe in: credere in – I belive in doing a good work.
- benefit from: beneficiare di, trarre vantaggio – He’ll benefit from selling the old car.
- boast about: vantarsi di – Jim boasts about winning tennis championship.
- care for: interessarsi a – The company cares for producing a good quality products.
- complain about: lamentarsi di – He compain about doing the homeworks.
- concentrate on: impegnarsi su, concentrarsi su – Mario is concentratin on working.
- confess to: confessare di aver – Kim confessed to losing 100 USD.
- count on: contare su – I count on finishing this task by tomorrow.
- decide against: decidere di no fare qualcosa – He decided against going on holiday.
- depend on: dipende da – It depends on you telling the truth.
- dream about/of: sognare di – I dream about speaking chinese.
- feel like: aver voglia di – I feel like going on holiday.
- get on with: continuare a fare – He has to get on with working this project.
- get used to: abituarsi a -You will soon get used to working the Sunday.
- give up: smettere di – She want to give up smoking.
- insist on: insistere con – She insisted on washing this old shirt.
- look forward to: aspettare di, non vedere l’ora – He looks foreward to playing tennis.
- object to: non essere d’accordo – I object to buyng this kind of DVD.
- pay for: pagare per – I don’t want to pay for entering in the park.
- put off: rimandare, poticipare – We cannot put off selling house any longer.
- put up with: sopportate – I cannot put up with smoking in my house.
- resort to: ricorrere a – Finally he should resort to asking for her help.
- specialize in: specializarsi in – He specialized in making cakes.
- succeed in: riuscire in qulacosa – Kim succeded in fixing that problem.
- talk about/of: parlare di, discuture – She talked about going to Rome.
- think about/of: pensare di – I think about buying that house.
- vote for: votare per – They want to vote for building a new parking
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