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usare la forma ing (gerundio) o infinitivo?

gerundio o infinitivo

Una delle difficoltà più comuni in inglese è sapere quando usare la forma in ing/gerundio (doing) e quando usare l’infinitivo (to do), dopo un verbo o una preposizione.

Ci sono sono delle regole generali che possono aiutare, e che illustreremo di seguito in questa tabella.

La forma ing/gerundio puo’ comparire all’inizio di una frase quando è usato come soggetto:

  • Runnig is good for the soul.

La forma ing/gerundio puo’ fungere da oggetto dopo alcuni verbi (vedi la lista i verbi qui sotto).

  • He loves going to the cinema.

La forma ing/gerundio segue le preposizioni (vedi la lista preposizioni)

  • I’m looking forward to hearing from you

La forma ing/gerundio segue i phrasal verbs

  • Mary gave up smoking

Anche l‘infinitivo puo’ essere usato all’inizio della frase, come soggetto.

  • To learn a new language requires a big effort

Anche l‘infinitivo puo’ fare da oggetto e seguire alcuni verbi (vedi la lista i verbi).

  • Albert always forgets to study.

Alcuni verbi vogliono l’infinitivo.(vedi la lista i verbi).

  • I want to buy a new car.

L’infinitivo puo essere usato come aggettivo per modificare i sostantivi.

  • Jim has the abity to sell.

Con alcuni verbi si puo usare sia la forma ing/gerundio che l’infinitivo e il significato non cambia.

  • Kim prefer getting up late in the morning

  • Kim prefer to get up late in the morning

Con alcuni verbi si puo’ usare sia la forma ing/gerundio che l’infinitivo pero il significato cambia

  • He stopped eating choccolate (significa che ha smesso di mangiare cioccolato, definitivamnete)

  • He stopped to eat chccolate. (significa che ha smesso l’attività precendente per per mangiare cioccolato)

Qui sotto la lista di verbi e frasi più comuni usati con la forma ing/gereundio:

  • admit: ammetere, confessare – She admitted cheating her friend on the test
  • advise: consigliare – I advise doing it before he comes back.
  • avoid: evitare – He wants to avoid buying a new computer.
  • be used to: essere abituato a qualcosa – I’m used to eating at one o’clock.
  • can’t help: non poter fare a meno di qualcosa – I can’t help thinking about the exam.
  • can’t stand: non sopportare: He can’t stand people smoking.
  • consider: considerare – I will consider eating with you.
  • deny: negare – John denys committing the crime.
  • discuss: discutere – We discuss buying a house.
  • dislike: non piacere, detestare – He dislikes cooking.
  • end up: finire per fare qualcosa – I end up working at Google.
  • enjoy: piacere – Kim enjoys playing piano.
  • feel like: aver voglia di – He feels like running.
  • finish: finire – I finished working about nine.
  • forget: dimenticare – I forgot calling him.
  • get used to: abituarsi a – I get used to speaking French.
  • give up: smettere – He gave up smoking.
  • go on: continuare – You should go on studying music.
  • have difficulty: fare fatica a – I have difficulty learning english.
  • have trouble: ho difficoltà a He has trouble walking.
  • it’s no use: è inutile It’s no use talking to her.
  • it’s worthwhile: vale la pena – It’s worthwhile spending money for a new car.
  • keep: continuare a – I keep working on the project.
  • look forward to: in attesa di – We are looking forward to hearing from you soon.
  • mention: menzionare/accenare – Jim mentionened going to London.
  • mind: importare di fare – Do you mind doing it?
  • recommend: consigliare, raccomandare – I recommend reading this document.
  • remember: ricordare di – I remember helping him last year.
  • quit: smettere di – She quits playing tennis.
  • spend time: passare il tempo – He spends time watching TV.
  • stop: fermare Jack stopping running when he got tired.
  • suggest: suggerire/consigliare – He suggested buying this car.
  • understand: capire – I can’t understand programming even after trying.

Qui sotto la lista di verbi e frasi più comuni usati con la forma infinitiva:

  • afford: permettersi o essere in grado – I lost my job and I can’t afford to buy a new car.
  • agree: aconsentire, accettare qualcosa – He agrees to let me use his computer.
  • appear: sembrare che – He appears to drink my tea.
  • arrange: organizzare – He arranged to go on holiday next week.
  • ask: chiedere – I ask him to buy a CD.
  • care: aver voglia di, importare – I don’t really care to go out this night.
  • decide: decidere – I decided to learn French.
  • demand: pretendere di, esigere di – He demanded to see the director.
  • expect: aspettarsi di, credere che – I expect to meet him next week.
  • fail: non riuscire a fare – He faliled to delivery the pakage in time.
  • forget: dimenticare di – I forget to call my brother.
  • hope: sperare – I hope to come with you tomorrow.
  • learn: imparare – They learned to swim.
  • manage: riuscire a fare – Jim has managed to get a good feedback from clients.
  • mean: volere, avere intenzione di: He doesn’t mean to disturb Kim.
  • offer: offrirsi di fare – She offered to clean her mother’s house.
  • plan: pensare di, progettare di – I plan to go on holiday next month.
  • prepare: prepararsi a fare – Jack is preparing to run a new challenge.
  • pretend: fingere, far finta – The kids pretend to be pirate.
  • promise: promettere – He promise to help me with the test.
  • refuse: rifiutare di – Kim has refused to pick up his best friend.
  • remember: ricordare di – Finally I remembered to call him for birthday.
  • seem: sembrare: He seem to be very happy.
  • volunteer: offrirsi volontario per – He voluntereered to take Jim to the airport.
  • wait: aspettare – They is waiting to know the final decision.
  • want: volere – I want to buy a new bike.
  • wish: desidereare di – He always wish to go away.

Alcune preposizioni sono seguite dal gerundio:

  • at: a – I’m not good at playing tennis.
  • after: dopo – After watching the movie, we wanted to eat pizza.
  • against: contro – He’s against going to London on vacation.
  • about: a proposito, circa – What about drinking a cup of tea?
  • by: per mezzo, con – You can fix this problem by using internet.
  • before: prima – Before doing somenthing like this, let me give you some advise.
  • instead of: invece di – Jim went to the cinema instead of going to work.
  • on: su, sopra, secondo – To get a good outcome, you need to keep on going.
  • without: senza – I cannot sleep without watching TV.
  • in spite of: nonostante – In spite of working a lot he didn’t get a good salary.

In questo contesto esiste la struttura

Aggettivo + Preposizione + ing oppure Sostantivo + Preposizione + ing, qui sotto aluni esempi:

  • afraid of – dispiaciuto per – They are afraid of losing the match.
  • angry about: arrabbiato per – Gary is angry about working until 8pm.
  • bad at/good at: buono a/scarso a – Jim is bad at playing tennis.
  • clever at: bravo a, sveglio a – Kim is clever at playing piano.
  • crazy about: pazzo per qualcosa – My sister is crazy about swimming.
  • disappointed about/at: deluso da – Mary is disappointed about watching such a bad movie.
  • excited about: impaziente di, eccitato per – She is excited about buying a car.
  • famous for: famoso per – He is famous for cooking a god italian pasta.
  • fed up with: stufo di – I’m fed up with being sent from one department to another.
  • fond of: affezionarsi a, appasionato di – I’m fond of playing guitar.
  • glad about: contento di – He is glad about going to Mary’s party.
  • happy about/at: felice di She isn’t happy about seeing her ex-husband.
  • interested in: interessato a He is interested in starting a new business.
  • keen on: appassionato di – My brother is keen on cooking.
  • proud of: fiero di – He is proud of working for this company.
  • sick of: essere stufo di – He is sick of going out every night.
  • sorry about/for: dispiacere, rimanere male – I’m so sorry for arriving later.
  • tired of: essere stanco – He is tired of watching the same movie.
  • used to: essere abituato – Jim is used to listening music.
  • worried about: preoccupato per – I’m worried about driving at night.

Alcuni verbi/phrasal verbs che sono seguiti da la forma ing:

  • agree with: essere d’accordo con – He agrees with buying a new car.
  • approve of: accettare, acconsentire – He approved of signing the contract.
  • admit to: ammetere, confessare – She admited to eating the whole cake.
  • aim at: mirare , puntare a – They aim to selling the house by end of this year.
  • apologise for: scusarsi – Jack apologized for missing the morning meeting.
  • believe in: credere in – I belive in doing a good work.
  • benefit from: beneficiare di, trarre vantaggio – He’ll benefit from selling the old car.
  • boast about: vantarsi di – Jim boasts about winning tennis championship.
  • care for: interessarsi a – The company cares for producing a good quality products.
  • complain about: lamentarsi di – He compain about doing the homeworks.
  • concentrate on: impegnarsi su, concentrarsi su – Mario is concentratin on working.
  • confess to: confessare di aver – Kim confessed to losing 100 USD.
  • count on: contare su – I count on finishing this task by tomorrow.
  • decide against: decidere di no fare qualcosa – He decided against going on holiday.
  • depend on: dipende da – It depends on you telling the truth.
  • dream about/of: sognare di – I dream about speaking chinese.
  • feel like: aver voglia di – I feel like going on holiday.
  • get on with: continuare a fare – He has to get on with working this project.
  • get used to: abituarsi a -You will soon get used to working the Sunday.
  • give up: smettere di – She want to give up smoking.
  • insist on: insistere con – She insisted on washing this old shirt.
  • look forward to: aspettare di, non vedere l’ora – He looks foreward to playing tennis.
  • object to: non essere d’accordo – I object to buyng this kind of DVD.
  • pay for: pagare per – I don’t want to pay for entering in the park.
  • put off: rimandare, poticipare – We cannot put off selling house any longer.
  • put up with: sopportate – I cannot put up with smoking in my house.
  • resort to: ricorrere a – Finally he should resort to asking for her help.
  • specialize in: specializarsi in – He specialized in making cakes.
  • succeed in: riuscire in qulacosa – Kim succeded in fixing that problem.
  • talk about/of: parlare di, discuture – She talked about going to Rome.
  • think about/of: pensare di – I think about buying that house.
  • vote for: votare per – They want to vote for building a new parking

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